How to become an ethical hacker – Phase 1 – History

History of  Initial Internetting Concepts

The internet as we know it may not have taken shape until the 1990s, well after Bill Gates revealed his first PC. So who invented the Internet? The Internet timeline traces back to the Vietnam War: 1969, to be exact. That year, a team of defense engineers at the University of Los Angeles-California (UCLA) sent the very first instant message via computer to another team thousands of miles away at Stanford University.
From the 3420 workstations Boelter Hall, on the UCLA campus, defense engineers had just set up the first node for Arpanet, a system funded by the Defense Ministry’s Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). ARPA’s vision was for a system that would connect large computers to the Defense Department’s various facilities so that they could share software, information, and storage space. UCLA would be one of the four main names – University of Utah, SRI International, and UC-Santa Barbara would be the others.

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The original ARPANET grew into the Internet. The Internet was based on the idea that there would be several independent networks of quite arbitrary design, which began with ARPANET as the groundbreaking package switching network, but soon to include package satellite networks, base packet radio networks, and other networks. The internet that we now know it is an important underlying technical idea, namely open architecture network.

 

In this approach, the choice of any single network technology was not dictated by a particular network architecture, but could be freely chosen by a vendor and made to interact with the other networks through a meta-level “Internetworking Architecture“. Until that time, there was only one general method of connecting networks. This was the traditional circuit switching method where networks were to connect together at the circuit level and pass individual bits on a synchronous basis along with a portion of an end-to-end circuit between a pair of end positions.

 

Remember that Kleinrock had shown in 1961 that parcel exchange was a more efficient change method. Along with package switching, specific interconnection arrangements between networks were another option. While there were other limited ways to connect different networks, they required one to be used as a component of the other, rather than acting as a peer of the other in providing the end-to-end service.

 

In an open architecture network, individual networks can be individually designed and developed, and each can have its own unique interface that it can offer to users and/or other providers. including other ISPs. Each network can be designed according to the specific environmental and user requirements of the network. There are generally no restrictions on the types of networks that may or may not be geographical, although some pragmatic considerations will dictate what makes sense. The idea of open architecture network was first introduced by Kahn shortly after coming to DARPA in 1972. This work was originally part of the package radio program but later became a separate program in itself. At that time, the program was called “Internetting”.
The key to making the work of the packet radio system was a reliable end-of-life protocol that could maintain effective communication in the face of jamming and other radio interference, or endure intermittent blackouts caused by being in a tunnel or blocked by the local terrain. Kahn first started developing a protocol that was only located in the packet radio network, as it would avoid having to handle many different operating systems and continued to use NCP.

However, the NCP did not have the ability to address networks (and machines) further downstream than a destination IMP on the ARPANET, and a change in the NCP would therefore also be required. (The assumption was that ARPANET was not changeable in this regard). NCP was on ARPANET to provide end-to-end reliability. If any packets are lost, the protocol (and possibly any programs it supports) will come to grinding. In this model, the NCP had no end-of-line check, as the ARPANET would be the only network that existed, and it would be so reliable that no host error was needed.

 

Kahn, therefore, decided to develop a new version of the protocol that could meet the needs of an open architecture network environment. This protocol will eventually be called the Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP / IP). While the NCP used to act as a device driver, the new protocol would be more like a communication protocol.

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